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Thread: More database fun

  1. #1
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    More database fun

    Ok so what i'm doing is incorporating 3 tables into one. I had "articles", "tutorials" and "reviews" these can easily put into one which i named "atr" (obvious )

    Right another question. Should i also incorporate the news into this table? It seems possible i think but what benefits are there to putting all the tables into one?

    Also i'm trying to make one page to retrieve all the data from the database. i.e. click on reviews you would then get php?section=tutorials if you get what i mean. At the moment i'm trying to figure this out.

    Can i just change the link in the nav bar (the nav bar is on an include() function) so it says /template?section=tutorials and it would then display the tutorials? I'm still unsure about this yet i've got my php and mysql book next to me.

    The reason i'm doing it is because it saves me having to create so many different pages.

    Thanks in advance peeps

  2. #2
    Senior Member Shad's Avatar
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    There's no real gain in your situation by combining all of the information into one table. How you've done it isn't how I'd necessarily do it, but it's obviously a solution that works and I can't see any real need to make it any more complicated by introducing the extra algorithms needed to differentiate news records from turotial records, for example.

    Can't really help you with the PHP side of things though.
    Simon


  3. #3
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    It would save me time in coding the MySQL to retrieve data. This means i don't have to code for each seperate table. We'll see how it goes, i just need more help on displaying the information without having to use seperate pages :/

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    If you;re going to be querying different tables with the same structure then just use a function e.g.

    PHP Code:
    function getData($table)
        {
            
    $query "SELECT * FROM ".$table;
            
    $result mysql_query($query)
            return 
    $result;
        }
        
        
    $articlesResult getData ("articles");
        
    $tutorialsResult getData ("tutorials");
        
    $reviewsResult getData ("reviews"); 
    Alternatively you could just use a simple UNION query again assuming the tables all have the same format e.g.

    SELECT * FROM articles
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM tutorials
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM reviews

    This would get all the data in one query

  5. #5
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    Well the plan is i want to click on the nav bar say on "tutorials" and then the site display the data for the "tutorials" section of the "atr" table by saying "article.php?section=tutorials" but if i'm reading what you're saying i can understand this. Instead it would say (if the file is called article.php) "article.php?tutorialsResult" and it would display the tutorials.

    This looks extremely handy if i'm understanding it correctly

    What does UNION do?

  6. #6
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    PHP Code:
        <?php
        $link 
    mysql_connect("localhost""kez""pwd")
            or die(
    "Could not connect : " mysql_error());
        
    mysql_select_db("kez") or die("Could not select database");

    $result mysql_query("SELECT id,title,author,date,category,explanation FROM `tutorials` WHERE category='photoshop' ORDER BY title ASC"$link);
          
          while (
    $line mysql_fetch_array($resultMYSQL_ASSOC)) {
    echo 
    "<a href=\"read_article.php?id=" $line['id'] . "&category=" $line['category'] . "\">" $line['title'] . "</a> by " $line['author'] . ", posted on the: " $line['date'] . "<br><blockquote>" $line['explanation'] . "</blockquote>";
    }

    mysql_close();
    ?>
    That's the first file which shows you the titles of each row and a snippet with the author and date.

    PHP Code:
        <?php
    ini_set
    ("include_path""/home/kez/public_html/");

    if (!
    is_null($id)) { 

    $link mysql_connect("localhost""kez""pwd") OR DIE("Avast! Cant connect to mysql DB yarrr!");
    mysql_select_db("kez");

    $result mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `atr` WHERE ID='$id' LIMIT 0,1"$link);
    $line mysql_fetch_array($resultMYSQL_ASSOC);

    echo 
    "<B>" $line['title'] . "</B> By " $line['author'] . " (" $line['date'] . ")
    <P>" 
    $line['content'] . "</P>";

    } else {

    echo 
    "Ambigous request you n00b";

    }

    ?>
    That's the read_article file which displays all the results within the table

    This is the method i'm using at the moment. This was when the tutorials, articles and reviews were all seperate tables. Now they are all combined and have a field called "section" to define what data should be displayed

  7. #7
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    Use the following on articles.php

    PHP Code:
        // this function will retrieve the data from the appopriate table and return an array of arrays
        
    function getData($table$orderBy)
        {
            
    $query "SELECT * FROM ".$table.$orderBy;
            
    $result mysql_query($query)
            return 
    $result;
        }
        
        
    // get the section from the URL and define the table accordingly
        
    switch ($_GET["section"])
        {
            case 
    "articles":
                
    $table "articles";
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            case 
    "tutorials":
                
    $table "tutorials";
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            case 
    "reviews":
                
    $table "reviews";
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            default:
                
    $table "articles";
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";    
        }
        
        
    $link mysql_connect("localhost""kez""pwd") or die("Could not connect : " mysql_error());
        
    mysql_select_db("kez") or die("Could not select database");

        
    // run the SQL query and get the results
        
    $result getData ($table$orderBy);
        
    // loop through the results and output them
        
    while ($line mysql_fetch_array($resultMYSQL_ASSOC))
        {
            echo 
    "<b>".$line['title']."</b> By ".$line['author']." ("$line['date'].")<p>" $line['content'] . "</p>";
        } 
    Leave your URLs as you have at the moment. The switch() statement will trap the value of section in the URL and set the $table and $orderBy values appropriately. You can then use one function to get the data. If you're only making the one SQL call then you can do without the function and just use the query.

    A UNION takes the results from each SELECT and joins them into one large resultset. It only works if the columns being returned by each SELECT statement are the same. So if your articles, tutorials and reviews tables all have the same columns then it will return all the data from those tables in one large resultset

  8. #8
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    Oh, and looking at your code you might be putting dates into text fields in the database. NEVER do this, it'll cause you all sorts of headaches later on. Put the date into a DATETIME column and use code to parse it if necessary.

  9. #9
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    Ok after a good couple of hours of mucking around with it i managed to get it to work. New tables had to be created and links had to be changed and so forth. Problem is there's a certain way i need it to be listed.

    In this order:
    Category,
    Title,
    Article.

    So you would click on tutorials, it would then give you a list saying "hardware, software" etc. and once you click on these it would then take you into the article itself.

    /me goes and reads up

    This could be difficult

    Ta for the help Az that was extremely useful

  10. #10
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    What is actually different between "articles", "tutorials" and "reviews". Do articles have some attributes that others do not? I guess they would all have an author, title, date and category.

    If they share the same attributes I would put them all in a single table with an extra attribute "type". You would define the "type" in a seperate table (1-articles, 2-tutorials, 3-reviews, etc).

    For a new content type all you need to do is add a new entry to the type table. (Rather than create a new table, change the db code.....)

    Thats my 2p on table design

  11. #11
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    Mart is right. Without knowing your database design it's hard to say but I'm guessing you need something like this

    Code:
    CREATE TABLE `categories` (
      `ID` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
      `category` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
      PRIMARY KEY  (`ID`)
    ) TYPE=MyISAM AUTO_INCREMENT=1 ;
    
    
    CREATE TABLE `item_types` (
      `ID` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
      `item_type` varchar(50) NOT NULL default '',
      PRIMARY KEY  (`ID`)
    ) TYPE=MyISAM AUTO_INCREMENT=1 ;
    
    
    CREATE TABLE `items` (
      `ID` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
      `title` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
      `author_ID` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
      `creation_date` datetime NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
      `categories_ID` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
      `explanation` longtext NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY  (`ID`),
      KEY `author_ID` (`author_ID`,`categories_ID`)
    ) TYPE=MyISAM AUTO_INCREMENT=1 ;
    
    
    CREATE TABLE `users` (
      `ID` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
      `username` varchar(20) NOT NULL default '',
      `first_name` varchar(30) NOT NULL default '',
      `last_name` varchar(30) NOT NULL default '',
      `email` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
      PRIMARY KEY  (`ID`)
    ) TYPE=MyISAM AUTO_INCREMENT=1 ;
    Use foreign keys on your table as much as possible to maintain the flexibility

  12. #12
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    Blimey! I haven't really read up on database design, i did it at college but it's completely different to this (and i need some more books )

    By using the switch i have to have seperate tables to choose from "articles", "tutorials" and "reviews". If they're in one table how to i tell the switch to select certain categories?

  13. #13
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    Depends on the ID of your categories but you're going to want something like this

    PHP Code:
    // this function will retrieve the data from the appopriate table and return an array of arrays
         
    function getData($itemTypeID$orderBy)
        {
            
    $query "SELECT items.*, item_types.item_type 
            FROM items, item_types
            WHERE items.item_types_ID=item_types.ID AND item_types.ID="
    .$itemTypeID;
            
    $result mysql_query($query)
            return 
    $result;
        }
            
        
    // get the section from the URL and define the table accordingly
        
    switch ($_GET["section"])
        {
            case 
    "articles":
                
    $itemTypeID 1;
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            case 
    "tutorials":
                
    $itemTypeID 2;
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            case 
    "reviews":
                
    $itemTypeID 3;
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";
                break;
            
            default:
                
    $itemTypeID 1;
                
    $orderBy " ORDER BY title ASC";    
        } 
    In actual fact you should do away with the word in the URL and replace it with the ID, would make it a lot easier e.g.

    article.php?section=1

    code would be
    PHP Code:
    $query "SELECT items.*, item_types.item_type
            FROM items,item_types
            WHERE items.item_types_ID=item_types.ID AND item_types.ID="
    .$_GET["section"]." ORDER BY title ASC";
            
    $result mysql_query($query)
            return 
    $result
    That way you don't need the switch unless you want other variables in the SQL e.g. the order by statement. Also you can change the name of any of the item types at any time and there will be no effect on the code
    Last edited by Iain; 27-01-2004 at 05:55 PM. Reason: Edited because I realised you meant item types not categories

  14. #14
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    right, let me have a play and i'll tell you how i do. This may take a while

  15. #15
    Senior Member Kezzer's Avatar
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    by the way, go to http://www.kezzer.co.uk/index1.php

    I've done what you said, just getting that error now which is the line:

    PHP Code:
    while ($line mysql_fetch_array($resultMYSQL_ASSOC)) 
    I've done something wrong obviously, i created all the tables using the mySQL as well. Not entirely sure.

  16. #16
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    Code:
    Warning: Supplied argument is not a valid MySQL result resource in /home/kezzeruk/public_html/article.php on line 59
    My guess would be your SQL query might be failing so it doesn't return a resultset.

    - Are you connected to the database
    - Check your SQL statement carefully, especially table and column names. (Might help to write it back to the screen for debugging)

    Disclaimer: I don't use php or mySQL

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